Mona (plural) are the sentient particles that make up all matter and energy in the Vita. Magic is the act of entreating the mona to change based on the galdor's will. For example, if a galdor wished to change a lump of carbon into a diamond, they would ask the mona in the lump of carbon to pressurize and change. The mona respond only to a special language called Monite, thought to be the first language.
Recently there have been rumors of something currently only referred to as anti-mona. What this actually is, is yet to be discovered.
Note: mona are never referred to in the singular form (such as "a mona"). They are a collective.
How Mona are Manipulated
Knowledge of Monite is only one part of the steps required to manipulate the mona.
Magic users are born with an innate ability to communicate with the mona; this is often referred to as "will". It is impossible to describe exactly how it is done, but magic users are born with the instinct and can often bring about small interactions with the mona without even learning a word of Monite. (This is called "premature magic" and is common during the transition years of nine to ten before a child officially Comes of Age.)
Mona travel along invisible lines in the body, known colloquially as ley lines but more correctly referred to as monic pathways. These pathways allow them to pick up on changes in the brain, the muscles and (presumably) the invisible will of the caster. In this way, they interpret the language and shape the world to the caster's will.
Monite is the language of the mona, sentient particles that control the workings of magic. The galdori (and consequently also wicks) have an incomplete knowledge of Monite. Spells are written through trial and error, and only the most learned scholars ever learn to speak Monite without a reference text, and to do so casually would be considered blasphemy. (It is, of course, impossible to "accidentally" cast a spell by merely speaking the words; the will to cast must be present.)
The language itself is comprised of hisses, clicks and h-heavy consonants.
In written form, it is best described as "chicken-scratches," and can be read up-to-down or left-to-right.
Spells are carefully constructed, with extra attention paid to sentence structure, accuracy, and even politeness; they are phrased differently depending on the caster, and many have compared the structure of a spell to a prayer or song.
Notes for further study:
Mona have definite moods and feelings, and delicacy is called for when speaking a spell. Their discretion in obeying spells is called monic will. At any provocation, the mona can change their mind. When the mona do not have a favorable opinion of the caster, the spell can go wrong. Mona have very long memories, and mistakes made in a galdor's past can affect his future casting ability and also have serious consequences on others around the caster.
Monic Will is best summarized as the sole discretion of the mona. These particles have free will, and choose whether or not to follow a spell's instructions. Occasionally the mona act without prompting from sorcerers, such as in the case of a passive's diablerie.
The monic will is often incorrectly interpreted along the lines of humanoid morality; many times, the decision of the mona is thought to be made because of some sort of right/wrong assessment. This has led to many moral quandaries and confusion, all in vain - the mona do not think along such lines. They are free from any earthly structures and concepts as good and evil.The true intentions of the mona are almost never clear, as is the actual amount of control they have over the world; some theorists and philosophers even postulated that free will is an illusion and the mona are merely living through humanoid avatars.